July 9, 2024

Diana Tall

Professional Advice

WHAT HYDRAULIC PUMPS ARE AND HOW THEY WORK?

Hydraulic pumps are crucial elements of hydraulic systems, which allow the creation of flow through the fluid and the transformation of mechanical energy into hydraulic power. They are utilized in many industries, such as manufacturing, construction, automobile, and aviation. By applying force to the hydraulic fluid, typically oil, the hydraulic pumps boost the pressure and cause a flow, allowing for the transfer of energy to hydraulic actuators such as motors and cylinders. 

What are hydraulic pumps?

Pumps for hydraulics are machines designed to produce fluid flow and generate hydraulic power in a system. They are an essential element of hydraulic systems extensively used in various sectors and applications, such as manufacturing, construction, automobile, and aviation. The pneumatic-driven hydraulic pump utilizes compressed air to power its mechanism and generates hydraulic pressure for the system.

Working

Hydraulic pumps operate on the concept of fluid mechanics. They utilize fluid mechanics and inherent characteristics in hydraulic fluids to create pressure and flow. This is a brief description of how hydraulic pumps function:

Input power 

Pumps powered by hydraulics are powered by an energy source, for example, electricity or an internal combustion engine. The input power powers the pump’s mechanism, which triggers fluid flow.

Suction phase

In the suction period, the pump creates a low-pressure zone within its suction or inlet port. This low-pressure area allows the hydraulic fluid to flow into the pump via an inlet or reservoir source.

Fluid intake 

When the low-pressure region is formed, the hydraulic fluid is drawn into the pump via the suction port. The fluid is removed from the reservoir or into the internal pump chamber.

Pump mechanisms

The hydraulic pumps employ different tools, depending on their model. Here is a brief overview of the tool used by the most common types of pumps:

  • Gear pumps are made up of two gears that mesh that typically rotate in opposite directions. As the gears spin, they collect the liquid within the tooth and housing of the pump, which results in an upward displacement. The fluid is then transported through the suction end of the pump to its discharge.
  • Vane pumps are made up of vanes mounted on a rotor inside an elongated chamber. The rotor’s position is eccentrically so that the vanes slide into and out of their slots. When the rotor turns, the fluid gets trapped within the vanes chamber walls and the housing, leading to displacement and transfer of fluid.
  • Piston pumps employ pistons that rotate or plungers to push your hydraulic liquid. These pumps may have either axial, radial, or bent-axis models. The plungers and pistons are moved back and forth; they draw into the fluid during suction strokes and push it out in the discharge.

Pressure generation

When the pump’s mechanism functions, it generates pressure inside the chamber of the pump. The pressure causes liquid hydraulics to flow between the side of the intake and the outlet side or discharge side of the pump.

Fluid Flow

Fluid flow-created pressure will push the hydraulic fluid through the outlet and discharge ports. The fluid then flows toward the hydraulic actuators, such as motors or cylinders, for work or to move machinery.

Return path

When the hydraulic fluid has completed its job in the hydraulic system, it goes back to the reservoir for the pump or to an external storage tank. This allows the fluid to be used again within the system of hydraulics.